Association of maternal serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level with intrauterine growth restriction: a case control study
Introduction: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) is suggested to be released in large amounts into the maternal circulation due to placental dysfunction. Studies have shown that raised levels of β-hCG was associated with IUGR in the first and second trimesters. However, no study was done during the third trimester. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the association of β-hCG level with IUGR during 3rd trimester. Methods: A case-control one year-period study completed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, BSMMU, Bangladesh. Pregnant mothers diagnosed with IUGR were taken as case (n=55) and mothers without IUGR as control (n=55). Serum β-hCG levels of these two groups were measured. The data was analysed with SPSS-16 software. Chi-square test was used for analysis. Results: The mean estimated fetal weight (EFW) of case was significantly less as compared to control (p<0.001). Out of 55 pregnancies with IUGR, 14 (25.5%) had raised level of β-hCG as compared to only 4(7.3%) of control had raised β-hCG level. The odds ratio (OR) of developing IUGR in pregnant women with raised β-hCG level was found to be 4.4 fold (95% CI: 1.331- 14.237) higher than the pregnant women with normal level of β-hCG. Conclusions: The study concluded a significant association between the raised levels of β-hCG with IUGR.
Keywords: IUGR; perinatal morbidity and mortality; β-hCG.