Patient safety culture among healthcare professionals in Bhutan

Patient safety culture among healthcare professionals in Bhutan


  • Rinchen Pelzang Southern Cross Care, Leichhardt Villa Taroom, Queensland, Australia
  • Norbu Jigme Dorji Wangchuk National Referral Hospital, Thimphu, Bhutan
  • Kinga Jamphel Bhutan Medical and Health Council, Thimphu, Bhutan



Patient safety, Patient safety culture


Introduction: There is dearth of information regarding the status of patient safety culture in Bhutanese healthcare system. The aim of the study was to assess the baseline patient safety culture among the healthcare professionals working in different levels of hospitals in Bhutan.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety, version 2 (HSOPS2) questionnaire in 2021 in six District Hospitals (DHs), two Regional Referral Hospitals (RRHs), and one National Referral Hospital (NRH) in Bhutan. A total of 782 healthcare professionals were recruited into the study. EpiData version 3.0 and Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 28.0 were used to process data and conduct the statistical analysis on survey data including descriptive statistics and validity and reliability of survey. The internal consistency reliability of each composite measure was assessed by calculating Cronbach’s alpha score.

Results: The overall level of patient safety culture was 61.28% (95% CI: 113.26, 115.27) and the percentage scores for the ten patient safety dimensions ranged from 45.13% to 82.65%. The dimension, “Teamwork within the hospital units” had the highest positive score while the dimensions, “Staffing and work pace” and “Reporting patient safety events” had the lowest positive scores.

Conclusions: The healthcare professionals working in hospitals in Bhutan had average patient safety culture. To improve patient safety culture, more emphasis should be given on human resource management, patient safety event reporting system, hospital management support for patient safety and quality improvement initiatives and creating an environment that promote just and learning culture. 


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How to Cite

Pelzang R, Norbu N, Jamphel K. Patient safety culture among healthcare professionals in Bhutan. Bhutan Health Journal [Internet]. 2023 May 31 [cited 2024 Jul. 12];9(1):17-25. Available from:



Original Article