Determination of Water Quality Indices and Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution of Drinking Water Sources in Thimphu

Authors

  • Chimmi Dorji Royal Centre for Disease Control, Ministry of Health, Serbithang, Thimphu, Bhutan
  • Pema Chophel Royal Centre for Disease Control, Ministry of Health, Serbithang, Thimphu, Bhutan https://orcid.org/0009-0000-6900-6417

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47811/bhj.158

Keywords:

Drinking water, Heavy metals, Pollution index; , Public health; , Water quality

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The well-being of public health is associated with the availability of safe and clean drinking water. Heavy metals, known for their toxicity and potential health risks, are a particular focus of water quality assessments. This study investigates the heavy metal concentrations in five primary drinking water sources of Thimphu city: Motithang, Jungshina, Taba, Dechencholing and Chamgang.

Methods: The ten heavy metals, known for their toxicity (Aluminum (Al), Boron (B), Barium (Ba), Cadmium
(Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn)), were assessed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for precise analysis. The study employed the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) and the Heavy Metal Evaluation Index (HEI) to evaluate water quality.

Results: The test results revealed low heavy metals concentration in the water sources. The HPI and HEI values were also calculated to be low (<15 and <1.24 respectively).

Conclusions: The study provides valuable insights into Thimphu’s drinking water quality, indicating a positive status with low
heavy metal concentrations

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Published

2023-11-29

How to Cite

Chimmi Dorji, & Chophel, P. (2023). Determination of Water Quality Indices and Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution of Drinking Water Sources in Thimphu. Bhutan Health Journal, 9(2), 16–21. https://doi.org/10.47811/bhj.158

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Section

Original Article